In ‘How Art Reprograms The World’, Bourriaud describes the effect of art to be no longer original; all art pieces being copy’s or reproductions of previous pieces of work, this is what Bourriaud describes to be “post-production”.   We can see this when looking at recent artist work; artists tend to take inspiration or ideas from previous artist work and then apply these ideas to there own work. This may not be seen as copying there work directly but there work is still not an ‘original’ piece as they have used other artist ideas, styles or imagery in producing their work.

Andy Warhol for instance is an artist who was inspired by Images of Marylyn Monroe, painting pop art images of Marylyn in series; Andy Warhol’s work is not therefore orignial so it is seen as ‘post-production’.


After watching a David Carson presentation on ‘design’, it is seen that David carsons ideas of ‘Semionaut’ fits well with Bourriauds idea of it.  David Carson’s theory of ‘Seminonaut’ was that one artist can produce a piece however another artist can come along and drastically change the emotion, feeling and power of the piece with one small change. This links well with Bourriauds theory that someone could take the Mona Lisa and add something to drastically change the feeling of the piece. But, this brings about the point of Bourriaud who would suggest which work is the second more powerful and effective piece.


Bourriaud and David Carson are saying in the digital age that original media work is becoming more of an interpretation of previous work and that it brings about the possibilities to make improved versions/recreations of previous artist work.


Death of the Author


The emergence of the concept of the author according to Barthes was seen at the ‘end of the middle ages’. 

Barthes perspective on the notion of literacy criticism (and the critic) was that ‘it is language that speaks, not the author’; ‘language alone acts, “performs,” and not “oneself’. This criticism is saying that language is what engages readers and what speaks to the reader not the author. Language is more powerful than the author who writes it.

‘The author is never more anything more than the man who writes, just as I is no more than the man who says I: language knows a “subject”, not a “person,”‘ . It is what is written that is the better importance not who has written.

The reader is who ultimately constructs meaning in a text with reference to a website for instance the reader relates to the website through imagery, text such as the logo and the pages (history page, contact page) on the website as well as the content.

The reader is who constructs the purpose of the website through reading the text; the language used will tell the reader what the website is for and how it relates to them as individuals. Websites are designed for particular audiences – readers the text font, style , layout, colour scheme is all designed to the specific readers in mind allowing the best perception of the website/company.

Therefore the reader is the key importance of any website he/she is the key element to a website as a website is designed for a particular reader in mind , it is there to engage the reader to the best standard and be as informative as possible.



Manovich argues that digital media has brought about a number of “media-independent techniques” which he identifies as “searchability, findability, linkability”. One technique that is also a media independent technique which has not been identified by Manovich is the “shareability” of digital media.

The dictionary definition of ‘sharing’, is the joint use of a resource or space between people. When in reference to software, sharing has different purposes and actions, for instance it can be to share imagery on social networks therefore ‘posting’ an item on an account news feed. Another use of sharing can be changing the permission of access rights to a folder or document; this is very common in bussinesses in order to allow effective data protection.  ‘Shareability’ should be identified as another media independent technique such as those which Manovich has previously identified; sharing on different platforms permits different actions to be taken out it is independant in each circumstance used as it is never the same and not cross platform.

I am now going to talk about 3 circumstances where all these techniques are used…

1. Instagram.


Seachability Technique.

Instagram allows users to search imagery by typing in certain phrases into a search bar such as ‘flowers’, ‘cats’ etc. In doing so Instagram searches all tags and names posted by users and lists all photos which relate to the phrase typed.

Findability Technique

Instagram allows users to add the location of the photo taken by allowing Instagram to connect to maps on mobile , iPad or Android etc. In doing so you can also post the location of each photo taken.

Linkability Technique

Instagram allows you to link photos by tagging a photo #cat  #hugs users tend to tag photos with different phrases to what the photo affiliates with.

Shareabilty Technique

Instagram allows users to post photos posted on Instagram to a number of other social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr etc.

2. Facebook


Searchability Technique

Facebook allows users to search for different users by a search bar at the top they can type in peoples names and it will display all users on Facebook with that name.

Findability Technique

Facebooks allows user to when posting statuses to post their location along with that status in doing so it posts a small map location of where they are for instance Vue Cinema Bristol.

Linkability Technique

Facebooks allows users to tag other friends into a status in doing so the status will post on the other friends account profiles.

Shareabilty Technique

Facebook allows users to share videos from youtube to Facebook by posting the URL in a status. When sharing an image may also be shared along with the link to the video.

3. Spotify


Searchabilty Technique

Spotify allows users to search for particular songs by typing in the artists name or the album cover/song into a search bar. When clicked search it will come up with all tracks with that artists name/ album cover etc.

Findabilty Technique

Spotify allows users to see what other users connected to them are listening to 24/7 this is done by a news feed on the right hand side. It allows users to see when they were listening to that particular song and what they were listening to .

Linkability Technique

Spotify allows users to link music together by creating playlists for general listening. In doing so all songs placed into the playlists are listed when clicked on.

Shareability Technique

Spotify allows users to share music by messaging songs to different users to listen to .